Plausibly workable ideas and designs:

Seemingly plausible ideas/designs by Kenneth Paul Charron: 1. "External field photovoltaic cell" concepts.  2. A "photogram", or more conventionally termed, a "photograph" can be reasoned to potentially be regardable as a plausible source of holographic "3d" picture information of the original scene that the camera took a "sample" or "picture" of.  3. Balloon buoyancy concepts fathoming. 4. Sealed-unit variable brightness/variable heat intensity funnelling solar stove concept. 5. Multiple thrusters of a rocket might reduce the stresseson the environment and personnel near to the rocket's exhaust.  6.  Horizontally-directed exhausts might still have vertical thrust components thus plausibly reducing the stirring up of dust of lunar and planetary landings and take-offs.  7.  Using water as the working fluid/vapor of a cloud chamber should save costs and be more easy to construct; if such were to even be possible.  8.  Having snap-in zippers could save much in time and effort, and with money generated by sales of such items, hopefully there could be more help for Christian relief organizations' attempts to help those in need.

 

More details:

1. External field pv cell concepts.

The external field Photoelectric Effect photovoltaic cell is an idea that I thought up which was intended to be a possible alternative to conventional silicon-based photovoltaic (pv) cells. It presumably would work by similar principles as silicon-based pv cells, but would use an externally-applied electric field E rather than an “internal” one. It would in a sense be similar, however.

In a conventional PV cell, the internal PN junction supplies the “separating field” which separates each recently photo-ejected electron from its parent atom (said parent atom now because of the photo-ejection of an electron  having become a positively charged ion) and from the lattice.

 

In this external field photovoltaic cell, the external field is supplied by external electrodes.

  

Herein described is a plausibly workable "Photoelectric Effect depleted-conduction-band-electrons metallic/nonmetallic-photon absorber/cathode photovoltaic cell":

Written by Kenneth Paul Charron

Last Updated 2017 June 23 Friday 7:45 am PDT

 

Sometime after the Spring of 1980 I was up at Western Washington University when I began to reason within myself as to how possibly a photovoltaic cell using a metal for the photon absorbing material could be constructed, rather than its using silicon, or some other semiconductor for such a photon absorbing material, as many conventional semiconductor photovoltaic cell designs used back then, for absorbing such light energy.

 

I had read that in such a semiconductor cell there is a PN juxtaposition of layers such that an internal electric field region is created after a tiny exchange current, which is said to be due to the PN juxtaposition structure, then flows across the PN junction, which when afterwards if being illuminated by light results in an internal electric field within which the photons of the illumination light can cause silicon atoms to photoeject electrons such that then those electrons are attracted to the positive part of the region and the holes to the negative part of the region such that they accumulate, to later be able to contribute electromotive force to a circuit load.

At home I became amazed at that “principle of the separating field” and began, in albeit admittedly an amateur manner, to attempt to design a similar photovoltaic cell using an external field instead of an internal field, to use metal, and later on, I considered attempting to use as well, other polarizable material instead of semiconductor material only.

However because with metals the “photoelectric yield” of electrons is sometimes as little as one photoejected electron resulting, per 1,000 impinging photons, or less; my design, as previously configured, probably, I thought, would result in its being a low-output device, if constructed, as initially designed, so I tried to increase the output by designing more surfaces for the impinging photons to bounce off of, hoping that with each bounce of the photons off a different area of the cathode regions, that because of the overall cathodic-anodic induced electric field caused electron-scavenging, that then more electrons would be attracted to the anodic surface regions, after being photoejected off of the cathodic surface regions, because when photons impinge on the cathode regions due to multiple reflections, then more electrons should be given off by each bounce of those incoming photons impinging on the cathode regions.

Hence the yield could plausibly have been enhanced by such increased-reflective-bouncing-activity that the multiple-reflecting-bounces design configurations might have allowed for.

However, the yield still yet may have been too low for practicality purposes.

Sometime during the development of these design increments for the Photoelectric Effect-Metallic-Photovoltaic Cell (PE-MPC), I speculated that by increasing the field strength that recombination could be reduced.

Much later, circa 2012-2013, I somehow wondered whether or not, that if such low photovoltaic yield were because reflection of photons off the surface atoms of the metal would be occurring more instead of absorption of photons by the atoms of the metal surface occurring, and:

Since reflection-of-light photons bouncing-off-of-a-surface-of-a-metal is allegedly due to conduction band free electrons being involved with the process of reflectivity,

Whether such reflectivity could be reduced by having a strong inducing charge at each end of a bar, rod, plate or wire, etc, such that with enough of such voltage and enough of such length of the bar, rod, plate or wire, etc, that as the distance increases from the negatively charged region-near-the-end-of-the-bar, rod, plate or wire, etc, inducing voltage charge-source, that there should be at the positive-tending end, less and less of the free conduction band electrons that may be responsible for reflection in the first place.

Then, eventually perhaps, at a point far along the path away from the negative-charge-source location that does half of the inducing, the conduction band electrons would reach effectively zero in number, and eventually, at points far along the path enough from the inducing charge source, then the encountered distant-from-the-negative-inducing-charge-source-locations of the metal bar, rod, plate, or wire would be possibly all be positive therefore, up to the capacitive gap region of the device, with the charged region thus positively charged.

Perhaps a pair of capacitors could take the place of “the metal bar, rod, plate, or wire" with capacitive gaps at each end, with inducing voltage poles at each end of the capacitive gaps. Possibly a pair of capacitors of as a yet-to-be-determined capacity, and possibly a long wire connecting between them, therefore, might substitute for the other arrangement, instead.

Thus, if and when therefore the crystal lattice were to be depletively neutral and/or depletively positively charged, then less reflection might occur, and then more photons could be absorbed, instead of being reflected.

Those photons might be impinging therefore on electrons in more bound circumstances concerning the crystal lattice, not as with the previous design configuration, concerning photons impinging on the conduction band free electrons which might be possibly involved with facilitating or contributing to reflection.

Thus, then the device could function more efficiently as a photovoltaic cell, with possibly a higher yield, since instead of reflecting the impinging photons so much, it may result that more photons would be being absorbed by the crystal lattice and thus possibly if the work function energy were being enough, such a configuration could cause photoejection of electrons to occur more than otherwisely might be case.

2017 October 15 Sunday 8:23 am PDT Update:

1.  Plausibly, the basic structures of the device could be arranged for by using mylar thin films.  However, to show online the diagrams of my proposed designs, I would need to afford ink cartridges for my printer, since the scanner of my 4 in 1 printer requires there to be ink cartridges in the printer in order for it to function as a scanner, even.  My ink cartridges have almost all run out; and a new set might cost possibly towards $100, an amount that I just do not have right now, since I am unemployed except for my "fledgling" home-based small business, Northwest Products and Services, with www.help-rescue-efforts.com  as my website; which has yet to receive an order or any income, ever since April 2006 when I took my Earned Income Tax Credit (E.I.T.C.) from my previous 2005 Thanksgiving to Christmas season Salvation Army bell-ringing Kettle Worker employment pay to pay for my registering my then new fledgling business with the City and State tax offices.

However, I continue to make efforts to achieve income occurring.

Almighty God:  Please help me concerning this matter.  Thank You.

 

2.  Possibly the cathode could be of a different non-metallic material.

 

 

2. A. A "photogram", or conventionally termed, a "photograph" can be seen as a possible source of holographic information:  By reversing the light rays' directions that came from the original scene, and thus then sending those or similarly directed rays back through the original camera lenses of the camera, except oppositely directed, then those light rays may trace out the paths of the original light rays of the environment that the camera took a sample of; except that those rays would be oppositely directed.

 

Then a hologram could be made of those rays and the film developed and illuminated with the reference rays beam to produce the 3d information of the original scene. 

 

Plausibly however, instead of a hologram needing to be made of the rays going back through the lens and then to be made into a hologram using holography equipment and film plate; Instead, the rays that came through the camera lens to impinge on the camera photographic film could be approximated and then those approximated rays sent back through the lens or lenses of the camera, or through a similar lens or lenses, and then with a beam splitter, reflected out away at some angle with respect to those rays going out through those camera lenses, and then therefore, a 3d  picture of the original scene that the camera took a sample of, could be approximated, plausibly, without a hologram being necessary.  

Restated, thus, the light rays going through the camera lenses, after impinging on the photographic film, and after the photographic film  has been developed and turned into a "positive opacity" or more conventionally termed, a "photograph" of an ordinary sort, or a "positive transparency", as with Ektachrome slides of yesteryear, and then light shone in the opposite direction back from that positive opacity or from a backlight through a positive transparency back through the camera lens or lenses, or more tenaciously possibly through only a similar lens or lenses, there then could be a mirror or a prism to invert right and left and to cause the rays to be directed out towards the observer, such rays being directed out towardsthe observer as was the case before the rays encountered the lens of the camera, which "took a sample" of the original overall set of rays emerging from the original scene; except that if either 1.  light impinging to reflect off of  a "potentially bright opacity" or 2.  light going from a backlight source of illumination through a "potentially bright transparency"; then light that goes back through the camera lenses in the original direction could thus illuminate a photogram or photographic picture thus placed at the place where the original rays went through the camera lenses to impinge on the camera film plate or roll film frame.  Thus, if a person were to insert a conventional 2d "picture" or "photograph" or "photogram" into the device, there might occur a 3d picture of the original scene that the camera took a sample of by the lenses, shutter, and other camera mechanisms functioning.

Whether or not the exact same lens parameters of the exact same original camera lens used to form the image on the film are needed, to result in such a conceivably plausible generating of a set of light rays that would be similar to the original set of light rays that impinged on the film after going through the camera lens, has not presently been reasoned very much, concerning such, by this author, as yet.

2. B.  Plausibly, by having a double layer of chemical photographic film, parallax information could better be recorded when a photogram is taken by a camera. 

2. C.  If  the film is roll film, or even a single film plate, possibly by having the two layers back to back, with the sensitive silver halide layers on the outside, then the sensitive parts of the film frames could be reached by the film developing and processing chemicals better. 

2. D.  Conceivably, if there were to be a larger distance between the two layers of photographic film upon which the light rays coming from the original scene and then through the camera's lens or lenses impinge, then the original directions of the original light rays could more accurately be approximated.  Thus possibly a better functioning 3d camera and display device could be built; because it may be the case as with in geometry, "two points determine a line"; whereas with only one point, it may be more difficult to approximate the original rays as exactly.

2.E.  With a digital camera, it might also be possible to similarly send the rays outcoming from the digital display to go through a lens or lenses similar or identical with the camera's lens or lenses to similarly achieve a 3d result.

2.F.  Also conceivably, if the original lens system  were to used to "view" a 2d picture from a distance, plausibly with the mirror and/or prism inverting and redirecting the rays, then a 3d scene might result, also.

2.G.  Seemingly, the wider the lens, the more parallax that could be obtainable; as with the concept of "single lens parallax"; except that different from single lens parallax, with this system, the distortions that single lens parallax images may include, may be plausibly reversed by the fact that the light rays go back through the lens system of the camera, or through a similar lens system; thus possibly reversing the spherical abberation or whatever else abberation or distortion that may occur with only a single lens with the light rays coming through it towards the film plate or image recording digital mechanism. 

 

 

 

3.  Balloon buoyancy concepts fathoming.  Gas content of air-born balloons has been:  hot air, helium, hydrogen.  Why not protons? -Because the protons may combine with electrons in the rubber or other material that constitutes the fabric of the balloon.  -Therefore, why not electrons? 

4.  Sealed-unit variable brightness / variable heat intensity funnelling solar stove concept.

 

5.  Could multiple thrusters possibly result in less thrust per nozzle whilst yet still providing the same or a similar overall thrust for a  vehicle?

If the exhaust from one exit aperture of a horizontally aligned rocket propelled land vehicle is instead made to be the exhaust of four exit apertures, such that the total strength of exhaust thrusting is divided into four complementing apertures;

 

Then possibly by having many such apertures spread out over a surface, with the total thrust being the same, then there could be less damaging results on items or personnel in the path of the exhaust.

 

Such should seemingly be possible because the force of the exhaust streams would be spreadout over a larger area, and the amount of force "intercepted" by, say a human being standing in back of a vehicle so equipped would, or should it be said, possibly could, be less and so there might be less potential damage to such a person; or to vehicles following behind on the road.

 

This all may seem a little far-fetched and the "necessary minimal multiplicity" number of thrust nozzles needed to reduce the potential damage due by way of the exhaust impinging on various categories of exhaust interceptants such as for example, a human subject or animal subject or plant life subject or on a physical object such as an automobile windshield that may be following behind on the road; for each such category, for a given amount of overall thrust or for a given range of acceptable safe "impingingness" thrust values, is not at the present time known; if there could even be any "safe" such impingingness acceptable level that would not cause harm.

 

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Thus could there be slow-to-fast motion, non-injurious jet-propelled horizontal thrust vehicles as with rocket-propelled automobile sleds on land except without dangerous exhaust streams?

 

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And could there be similarly less dangerous exhausts for vertical thrust vehicles as with VTOL jet airplanes, and for rockets?

 

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De Laval nozzles might help collect the through-the-focus-aperture-center trajectoried particles by their paraboloid shapes and redirect them towards motion in the downwards direction so as to impart more upwards-directed momentum to the rocket structure.

 

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With 4 apertures, then that would be 1/4 of the total thrust of the original one-aperture-thrust per each "mini-thruster" of the array of 4 thrusters.

 

With 10 apertures, then that would be 1/10 of the total thrust of the original one-aperture thrust, per each mini-thruster of the array of 10 thrusters.

 

With 100 apertures, then that would be 1/100 of the total thrust per each mini-thruster of the array of 100 thrusters.

 

With 1000 apertures, then that would be 1/1000 of the total thrust per each mini-thruster of the array of 1000 aperatures.

 

With 10,000 apertures, then that would be 1/10,000 of the total thrust per each mini-thruster of the array of 10,000 apertures.

 

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Thus, if the total thrust is 2,000#, then that would be 500# per mini-thruster of a 4-unit array.

 


Thrust per mini-thruster Mini-thrusters per array
200# 10-unit array.
20# 100-unit array.
2# 1000-unit array.
0.2# 10000-unit array.

 

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And, if the total thrust is 200,000#, then that would be 50,000# per mini-thruster of a 4-unit array.

 


Thrust per mini-thruster Mini-thrusters per array
20,000.0 # 10-unit array
2,000.0 # 100-unit array
200.0# 1000-unit array
20.0 # 10,000-unit array
2.0 # 100,000-unit array
0.2 # 1,000,000-unit array

 


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7.  Horizontal thrusters may reduce dust stirrings up for planetary landers descents and ascents but yet still provide upward lifts.

Plausibly even slightly upward angles of inclination of the thrustered airfoils could still result in upward lifts but reduce dust stirrings-up even more. 

8.  Why not use water as the working fluid/vapor of a cloud chamber?

9.  Clothing design business idea:  Why not have zippers of garments, bags, and other such items requiring a zipper, to each be having a zipper held on by snaps to base canvas strips with snaps on it such that the item can be closed together be the snaps alone; then with the zipper added, it becomes a zippered item.  Then if the zipper fails, as zippers seem oftenly inclined to do, then the zipper can merely be snapped out of the item (such as a coat or a pair of blue jeans or other pants); and then a new zipper snapped in. 

I hope to use this idea to make money for helping Christian relief organizations; as well as for my personal business.